thumb|250px|right|Some grapes of vitis vinifera The muscat family of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are grown around the world in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Israel, France, Portugal, Greece, Spain, Australia, California, Hungary, Canada, Italy, Turkey Oman?? and other places. The breadth and number of varieties of muscat suggest that it is perhaps the oldest domesticated grape variety, and there are theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape family are descended from the Muscat family.
Varieties of Muscat Grapes
- Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (also called Muscat Blanc, Muscat Canelli, Muscat Frontignan, Moscato Bianco, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat d'Alsace, Muskateller, Muscatel de Grano Menudo, Moscatel Rosé, Sárgamuskotály and Yellow Muscat). This grape is used for the wines: Asti, clairette de die, and muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise. It is also used for some Tokaji wines.
- Moscato Giallo (or Goldmuskateller) and Moscato Rosa (or Rosenmuskateller) are thought to be closely related colored versions of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains.
- Moscatel de Setúbal and Moscatel de Favaios are the most widely consumed varieties in Portugal, usually served in bars or as an aperitif at restaurants.
- Muscat of Alexandria (also called Moscatel, Moscatel Romano, Moscatel de Málaga, Gordo Blanco, Hanepoot, Lexia, Moscatel Gordo, and Zibibbo) This grape is used for sherry, moscatel or muscatel wines, Muscatel de Valencia, Muscatel Passito and other Muscatel liqueurs and also as a raisin and table grape.
- Muscat Ottonel (also called Moskately) Used for dessert wines in Austria, Slovenia and Croatia, and dry wines in Alsace and Hungary.
- Muscat Hamburg (also called Black Muscat, Moscato di Amburgo) Used for some Eastern European wine but mainly for table grapes in Italy and Australia.
- Orange Muscat. Used for dessert wines in California and Australia. Not surprisingly, has something of an orange aroma.
- Muscat Crocant. Used for dessert wine of the same name (Muskat Krokan) in Serbia, where it grows only on Pearl Island (Biserno Ostrvo) on Tisza River.
- Moravian Muscat. The most widespread new wine cultivar in Czech Republic.
Table and sparkling winesMuscat grapes are one of the major varieties grown for table wine in Chile, and is a minor variety in California and Italy. Muscat Ottonel is also successfully grown by a few vineyards in the Finger Lakes region of New York State. Currently it is produced into an Alsatian styled wine by McGregor Vineyard Winery on Keuka Lake.
In Italy, it is widely used in sweeter sparkling wines like Asti. Their 'grapey' quality makes many wines made from Muscat easy to identify. Moscato d'Asti is a lightly sparkling (frizzante) variety of Muscat, made from the Moscato Bianco (Muscato Canelli) grape of the Piedmont region of Italy. This region has a DOCG designation, and is also known for the production of Barbera d'Asti, Dolcetto d’Asti, and Asti Spumante. In Lithuania, it is also used for making a sparkling wine called Alita.
Dessert and fortified winesMuscat grapes are used to make a variety of sweet dessert wines in various parts of the world. Typically, these are fortified wines, though some sweet late harvest and noble rot wines are also made from Muscat grapes.
Muscat is widely grown in Portugal and Spain, where the grape and the wines produced from it are known as Moscatel or Muscatel. Moscatels made in these countries are typically sweet and fortified. Among these wines is Moscatel de Setubal a sweet fortified wine from the Setúbal Peninsula in Portugal. Moscatel de Favaios is a Moscatel from the Douro Region. A Moscatel Madeira wine has also been produced on the island of Madeira, although Moscatel has become increasingly rare there over the last century.
In Spain, sweet fortified Moscatels are produced in a number of regions, notably Malaga and Jerez, and are sometimes made using the solera system. A variety of muscat is one of the varietals used in the production of sherry and according to Spanish law, it is one of only three grapes varietals allowed for this purpose.
France also produces a number of sweet fortied vins doux naturels from muscat grapes, such as Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, and Muscat de St-Jean Minervois.
In Australia, sweet fortified muscat wines are produced in the Rutherglen region, with older wines made according to the solera system.
Brandies and liqueursMuscat wine is also the basis for the brandy like Pisco, made in Peru and Chile, and Metaxa, a liqueur made in Greece.
ChemistryMuscat grapes contain a number of distinct compounds that give muscat sines their distinct "muscaty" flavor.
Muscat grapes have been found to have high concentrations of antioxidant flavonoids, in quantities as high as many varieties of red grapes. This means that the possible beneficial effects of red wine consumption may also be present in muscat wines.
Muscat Wines by Country
AustraliaBrown Muscat has pride of place in north-east Victoria's Rutherglen district, and is generally regarded to be one of the world's greatest fortified wines. High quality Muscats are also produced in other mainland states. Riverina producer Miranda makes a raisined Muscat in passito style.
BulgariaMuscat Ottonel is grown in the Black Sea region and in the Danubian Plain, while Muscatel is a well-known style in the Rose Valley.
SerbiaKnown locally as Tamnjanika, sweet muscat wines have been popular in Serbia since the middle ages. They are grown mainly in the Zupa region of western Serbia, near Mount Kopaonik and also in the Negotin region in the Danubian basin.
Czech RepublicMoravian Muscat is mostly grown in the region of South Moravia.
South AfricaMuscat is known as Muscadel or Hanepoot (Literally: Cockerel's Foot, reputedly from the shape of the vine's leaves, although there is a theory that it is a corruption of hanekloot which means: Cockerel's Testicle from the shape of the grapes themselves), and can be either red or white. Like Australian Muscats, these can be high-quality fortified wines while Constantia is known for late-harvest Muscat of great standing.
United StatesMuscat wines produced in California include the Muscat de Beaulieu, a fortified wine from the Napa Valley; the Conundrum wine, which is a blend of Muscat, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay; and Vin de Glaciere, which is an artificial icewine made from late harvest Muscat grapes. In California's Central Valley the Muscat cross Black Muscat is used to make dessert wine. Carlo Rossi, a popular brand of wine produced by E&J Gallo, has its own Red Muscat. In Oregon, Muscat Ottonel is used by Purple Cow Vineyards of Forest Grove, Oregon, which creates a dry, fruity, aromatic white wine similar to those found in Alsace.
FranceMuscat is best known for producing
- Vins Doux Naturels (Natural Sweet Wines) in Frontignan, Lunel, Mireval, St Jean De Minervois, Rivesaltes, Beaumes de Venise and Cap Corse.
- Alsace Muscat is primarily dry, but can also be made in sweeter styles (Vendange Tardive and Selection de Grains Nobles)
ItalyMuscat (Moscato) grows throughout Italy in various forms. In dessert form it is either passito or fortified, but it also appears in sparkling wines (Asti spumante and Moscato d'Asti) . One of the best is the Moscato di Trani, made on Adriatic in the town of the same name in Apulia.
SpainFortified Muscat (Moscatel) is produced in Andalucia, Catalonia, Valencia, and the Canary Islands.
PortugalMuscat (Moscatel) makes the much-revered Moscatel de Setubal and Moscatel de Favaios among others.
Austria and HungaryIn both Austria and Hungary, Muscat wines ranging from dry to very sweet are produced. Muscat is one of the varieties grown in the Tokaj region of Hungary.
RomaniaRomania has Muscat plantings for various dry and sweet styles.
GreeceMuscat dessert wines (moschato) are produced on Samos, Rhodes, Patras and Cephalonia. Dry Muscat table wine is produced on Lemnos.
TurkeyMuscat grapes are produced in Ankara and Central Anatolian Region.
CyprusMuscat dessert wines are also produced in Cyprus, analogous to those produced in Greece.
UkraineThe Crimea region is home to dessert wines of reverence, with white, pink and black Muscat being given pride of place.
North AfricaFortified Muscat wines are produced in Tunisia and Morocco.
New ZealandMuscat is used for dessert wines.
- Muscats Du Monde - website of an international Muscats competition.
muscatel in Catalan: Moscatell
muscatel in German: Muskateller
muscatel in Spanish: Vino Moscatel
muscatel in French: Muscat
muscatel in Hebrew: מוסקט (יין)
muscatel in Italian: Moscato
muscatel in Dutch: Muscat (druif)
muscatel in Japanese: マスカット・オブ・アレキサンドリア
muscatel in Portuguese: Moscatel
muscatel in Russian: Мускаты
muscatel in Swedish: Muscat
muscatel in Ukrainian: Мускат